Baptism Of Pocahontas Analysis

Monday, October 11, 2021 12:34:16 PM

Baptism Of Pocahontas Analysis



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Assaulting, resisting or impeding officers or employees; presence in a restricted area of the building or grounds; and violent entry and disorderly conduct on the Capitol grounds. Pollock is one of a group of five friends and relatives who live in or near Lakeland, Florida, who were indicted by a federal grand jury, charged with a series of violent confrontations with law enforcement officers on Capitol grounds on Jan. Her brother, Jonathan Pollock, is among those charged. A family member told the Lakeland Ledger that Joshua Doolin is a cousin. A family member owns a gun shop in Lakeland where Hutchinson worked. Another brother told the Lakeland Ledger he thought the arrests were political.

The FBI news release also stated the Pollocks have another brother, younger than Jonathan, who participated in the riot with Jonathan and Olivia. Numerous police body camera videos show members of the group assaulting officers, the FBI stated in federal charging documents. In several photos, she carried a large U. The documents state an officer tried to get past Olivia Pollock at one point and she wrapped up his arm and tried to strip away his baton. Moments later, the FBI stated she struck an officer with her right hand and elbowed him in the chest. According to the FBI's timeline, members of the group were at the Capitol for nearly 3 hours. Assaulting officers using a dangerous weapon two counts ; assaulting, resisting or impeding certain officers four counts ; theft of government property three counts ; entering and remaining in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct; engaging in physical violence in a restricted building or grounds; act of physical violence in the Capitol grounds or buildings.

Pollock was indicted with his sister Olivia and three others who live near him in Lakeland, Florida, but as of July 9, he had not been apprehended. The witness stated the Pollock family took "several weeks off of work" in January to travel to Washington D. When Pollock returned to work, he showed photos of himself on his phone to coworkers and bragged about being in the news, the witness stated. On the second day after returning to work, Pollock reported "a family emergency," left his worksite and did not return again, according to the charging documents.

A coworker said Pollock's father answered the door at their home and handed over keys and items belonging to the company and stated he did not know where his son was. On the day of the riot, photos show Pollock wearing camouflage clothing, as well as a ballistic plate carrier vest and backpack, also in camouflage print, green knee pads and brown tactical gloves with molded plastic knuckles. At p. When the metal barrier between the crowd and the officers was pulled away, Pollock charged the police line, jumping over other rioters to attack police officers, the charging documents stated. Pollock grabbed an officer and pulled him down the stairs.

And an officer stepping in to assist was also pulled down. Pollock punched another officer in the face and then pushed the officer to the ground by holding the officers neck in a choking action. Later, the documents state, Pollock seized a riot shield and struggled with an officer for it until Pollock took control of the shield, then used it to slam into the police line.

The FBI stated that Pollock, his sister and friends continued in other skirmishes up until at least 5 p. Assaulting, resisting, or impeding officers; theft of government property; entering restricted building or grounds; violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds. Perkins is one of a group of five people who live in or near Lakeland, Florida and charged with a series of violent confrontations with law enforcement offcers at the Capitol.

He was arrested on June Federal officials requested that he be detained. Court documents state he assaulted a law enforcement officer with a flag pole and is facing two to three years of imprisonment on the assault charge. Entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds; disorderly or disruptive conduct; disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds; obstruction of an official proceeding. Duong introduced himself to an undercover member of the Metropolitan Police Department staff on the morning of Jan. Duong hosted the undercover FBI employee at Bible studies where they discussed firearms and other militia-style training activities, as well as a Virginia secession movement called "the state of Appalachia.

Duong's group continued to conduct additional surveillance around the Capitol for months, the FBI stated. At one of the meetings he organized at his home, Duong had a member of the far-right militia theorists Three Percenters speak to the group. At that March meeting, Duong admitted he was at the Capitol riot wearing all black and two different kinds of masks. The FBI stated his photo was later confirmed on surveillance video. In a March discussion about the arrests of many of the rioters, Duong mentioned the possibility of breaking the people who had been arrested out of prison. Duong acquired an AK47 and a suppressor and repeatedly expressed his willingness to engage in conflict and violence, the FBI stated in the charging documents.

He also discussed testing molotov cocktails and talked about their merits. About another conversation, the undercover agent stated: "I believe Duong meant he was willing to barricade himself in his residence in defiance of law enforcement commands and was willing to die in this standoff in a similar manner to the standoff in Waco, Texas with David Koresh. Obstruction of law enforcement during civil disorder; entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building.

Brown was apprehended and identified during the melee where officers were assaulted on the lower west terrace on Jan. Officers placed him in zip tie cuffs and took him to a police station, the FBI stated in a complaint. Photos show Brown shouting into a megaphone and working his way to the front of the group where rioters were trying to push into the tunnel, ramming a flag pole into the tunnel and spraying liquid from a canister.

Brown was released that night without any charges filed, the FBI stated. Afterward, tipsters began reporting to the FBI that Brown was posting about his participation on Facebook and Instagram, with photos and videos. People should be storming that Brothel we call the Capitol everyday for what goes on in there. Brown is among several others who have mistakenly posted on social media that they invaded the White House rather than the Capitol. He posted a photo of the Capitol, stating "I am the First person to breech the White House in years. Moerschel's phone number was among the numbers used in 17 "Go To" meetings with members of the Oath Keepers, who were planning activities in Washington D.

He was known in an encrypted Signal chat among the group as "Hatsy. He was also shown on video at the Comfort Inn Ballston in Arlington, Virginia, which federal officials allege the Oath Keepers were using for their Quick Response Force that would be available to respond to the Capitol. The FBI stated it recovered a black flak vest from Moerschel's attorney, as well as a black duffel bag, and a firearm case containing a firearm that could have fit into the duffel bag. Entering or remaining in a restricted building or grounds and disorderly or disruptive conduct; entering and remaining on the floor of Congress and parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building. Laurens wore a "Trump No More Bull" flag as a cape around his neck to the Capitol riot, according to photos in federal charging documents.

The FBI located him on video footage inside the Capitol. He also posted on Facebook from inside the Capitol, and responded to a comment with this: "A few bad apples were trying to break windows and kick on doors, but most of us put that expletive to bed real fast. All in all, I had fun! Knowingly enter or remain in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; knowingly, and with intent to impede or disrupt the orderly conduct of Government business or official functions, utter loud, threatening, or abusive language, or engage in disorderly or disruptive conduct, at any place in the grounds or in any of the Capitol buildings; parade, demonstrate, or picket in any of the Capitol buildings.

In the video, Youngers mentions he just left the Capitol and was heading back to his hotel. As they enter the building, Youngers high-fives someone and later in the day pats a person entering the Capitol on the back. At one point Tenney and Youngers are involved in an altercation with an officer in the Rotunda. Marine Corps and U. Marine Corps Reserves. Unlawful entry on restricted grounds; physical violence on Capitol grounds; destruction of property in special maritime and territorial jurisdiction; violent entry or disorderly conduct; physical violence on grounds; parade, demonstrate or picket in any of the Capitol buildings. Haynes is among a group of people charged in late June with helping to destroy tens of thousands of dollars of cameras and broadcasting equipment after a mob charged a media staging area.

The FBI stated Haynes picked up and slammed down multiple pieces of equipment and stomped on one camera before throwing it onto a pile of eqiupment. In charging documents, Haynes is also shown helping to remove an air conditioning unit from a building outside the Capitol. After a search warrant for his phone, the FBI found selfies of Haynes inside the Capitol and text messages to friends, including one message saying he had stormed the building. Later in the evening of Jan. He told friends he was in videos destroying the media equipment, but wearing a mask. In an interview with the FBI, Haynes stated he disagreed with force used by law enforcement officers on Jan.

When asked whether he destroyed the leather jacket that he was wearing in photos, which he denied owning, Haynes declined to answer. Haynes told the FBI he's not a member of the Proud Boys but went to one of their meetings in November or December and would be a member if there were other members in his area. The caption for one of those stated the election was "tainted. Charging documents say he was seen in video by the Buggs Media Network knocking down barriers manned by uniformed police officers outside the Capitol.

He's also seen in video inside the Capitol, wearing a QAnon sweatshirt. In a video shared on an account called "brotunda," the FBI stated, Hart can be seen smoking in the rotunda and was likely part of the group smoking marijuana. Space Force cap. Court records state that based on surveillance footage, Bacon rushed in the door near the East rotunda at around p. He then darted up a staircase to the third floor and entered the Senate balcony.

Assaulting, resisting, or impeding certain officers; obstruct, impede, or interfere with any fireman or law enforcement; knowingly enter or remain in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; knowingly, and with intent to impede or disrupt the orderly conduct of Government business; physical violence against any person or property in any restricted building or grounds; physical violence in the grounds or any of the Capitol buildings.

Although a complaint was filed against Neumann on March 23, the case wasn't unsealed until June Neumann remains at large. The FBI used body camera footage to seek help identifying Neumann, and a family friend confirmed his identity and residence, according to court documents. Neumann is verbally abusing officers who are behind a metal barricade. When an officer asks him to move away from the barricade he refuses. Shortly after, Neumann grabs the barricade and forcefully shoves it into the line of officers, as officers push back Neumann throws punches at them. More rioters join in and they eventually break down the barricade.

Neumann lifts the barricade off the ground and strikes officers with it, after he retreats but stays on the Capitol grounds. Charging documents point out that Neumann's LinkedIn profile states he participated in the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in and , and the orange scarf he wore during the Capitol riot looks like an orange scarf commemorating that revolution. Destruction or injury to buildings or property in special maritime jurisdiction; act of physical violence on the Capitol grounds. Allen was one member of a mob that approached a media staging area and destroyed tens of thousands of dollars worth of camera and broadcasting equipment, the FBI stated in charging documents.

Allen was pictured in the agency's wanted photo gallery as No. Documents show he was seen repeatedly stomping on media equipment and yelling at journalists to leave the area. A tipster alerted the FBI to Allen's identity, stating he runs a YouTube channel where he live streams videos as he goes into police stations and state houses to "audit America. Knowingly entering or remaining in a restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building; parading, demonstrating, or picketing in a Capitol building. In one photo he is laying on a conference room table in the Capitol. All of Thurlow's Facebook pictures from Jan. The documents say Thurlow served as a U.

Army paratrooper. Grods reached a plea agreement with the FBI. Court records show that as early as Nov. In a news release, the Department of Justice said Grods admitted to planning, communicating with and inspiring with others to breach of the U. The members planned to interfere with the certification, attended or scheduled trainings to teach paramilitary combat tactics, recruited others to travel to DC and coordinated in advance with members of the Oath Keepers.

Court documents indicate Grods took firearms to Washington D. Grods stayed at the Mayflower Hotel and rode a golf cart toward the Capitol. The documents state he walked with others in a military "stack" formation, seen in many photos, in which members of the group walk in formation, each with their hand on the shoulder of the person in front of them. Assaulting, resisting or impeding certain officers; acts of physical violence in the Capitol building.

Willden was indicted on Jun 23 and arrested a week later. Wearing a dark jacket, beanie cap and gloves, Willden cheered as the doors to the Capitol opened, the FBI states in charging documents. Federal charging documents state that a second witness told the FBI that O'Malley had said he was proud of going to the Capitol. When the FBI showed up to interview O'Malley, he told them he'd deleted photos and videos on his phone because he wasn't proud of it. However, after obtaining a search warrant for his phone, the FBI found selfie videos O'Malley had taken inside the Capitol. O'Malley had taken photos of himself in a metallic red helmet with Trump stickers on the side, because he had been told that Antifa could be throwing rocks according to the charging documents.

The videos showed O'Malley wandering through the Capitol and saying they had taken the Capitol and were moving on to other floors. After leaving the Capitol, O'Malley stated on video: "They tried to trap us inside but we fought our way ,all the way in there and we fought our way back out. We swarmed the Capitol. Hot damn. Leading the charge. Getting it on. Assaulting, resisting or impeding officers or employees; violent entry and disroderly conduct on Capitol grounds; entering a restricted building.

Doolin was fired from his job as an emergency medical technician after he was arrested and charged with participating in the Capitol riot, the Lakeland Ledger reported. Doolin is one of a group of five in the Lakeland, Florida area charged together by indictment. Destruction or injury to buildings or property in special maritime and territorial jurisdiction; restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; act of violence on the U.

Capitol grounds. Brown was a member of the mob that approached a media staging area, causing journalists to flee, leaving their equipment behind, the FBI alleges in charging documents. Brown was identified as in the FBI's wanted photos of the attack. The agency stated he kicked and stomped on equipment, as he recorded himself doing it while spewing a string of expletives directed at the news media.

Let me tell you something—you want to take peaceful revolution away from us? Well you better prepare for expletive violent revolution. Destruction of property in special maritime and terretorial jurisdiction and aiding and abetting; act of physical violence on grounds. Jurlina participated in the assault on a media staging area at the Capitol around 5 p. He was captured on video saying: "Little Marco Rubio gave me that lighter. He was identified in FBI wanted photos as Entering a restricted building; disorderly and disruptive conduct in restricted buliding; violent entry and disorderly conduct and parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building. Charging documents state Fox made posts on Facebook, including one post in which Fox stated: " We actually have reasons to be there, not virtue signalling twitter points.

I want them attached to traitor politicians. Obstruction of proceedings, aid and abet; restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; violent entry or disorderly conduct; parading, demonsrating or picketing at a Capitol building. The reporter was approached by four to five men in an East Rotunda stairwell. They pushed the reporter to the ground, took her press credentials out of her pocket, and took her camera from her.

Weyer can allegedly be heard in the video shouting "Fing traitor, get the f out" and "Get her out, mace her. I saw Patriots sick of being lied to and the election being stolen from us! I saw no violence from the Patriots! Knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; theft of government money, property or records; disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds; parading demonstrating, or picketing in a Capitol building. Pleaded guilty to one count of Parading, demonstrating, or picketing in a Capitol building on Sept.

Seven online tips identified Vukich as being at the Capitol on Jan. Wild stuff. Be safe out there. Entering a restricted building; disorderly conduct inside the Capitol; disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds; theft of government property and parading or demonstrating inside the Capitol. Perretta told the FBI he saw people passing police officers and barriers, saw flashbangs, was among those tear gassed and that he saw someone push an officer down the steps of the Capitol. The documents state he also admitted to taking papers from the interiror of the Capitol and discarding them outside the building.

Knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building without lawful authority; knowingly engaging in disorderly or disruptive conduct. McNicoll wore a Trump hat and a replica of the California state flag, on which the words "Trump Country" replaced "California Republic," draped around her shoulders. Charging documents indicate McNicoll was inside the Capitol for more than 30 minutes, walking around and watching the activity. The agency said McNicoll had toured the Capitol years earlier and remembered having to set up the visit in advance to get a credential.

Destruction of government property; obstruct, influence or impede any official proceeding or attempt to do so; knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; engages in disruptive conduct with intent to disrupt ordinary government busines; utter loud, threatening or abusive language, or engage in disorderly or disruptive conduct; parade, demonstrate or picket inside the Capitol building.

Gardner can be seen in photos and video standing on a U. Capitol window ledge striking and damaging the window outside the Senate Terrace Room 2 Mezzanine, the FBI stated in federal charging documents. The agency was alerted to his identity by a tip from someone who said Gardner told them he'd been in the Capitol on Jan. Assaulting, resisting, impeding certain officers; tampering with a witness, victim or informant; civil disorder; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds with a deadly or dangerous weapon; engaging in physical violence in a restricted building or grounds with a deadly or dangerous weapon; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building; violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds.

Capitol Police Surveillance footage showed that Sills threw objects at officers outside and was in the first group of rioters that entered the Capitol tunnels on Jan. Videos from Sills' Instagram, surveliance cameras and police body cameras show that once Sills was inside, he assualted law enforcement officers with a baton and a pole-like object while using a strobe light to disorient the officers. Sills was the th person arrested for assaulting a federal law enforcement, the FBI stated on June Assault on a law enforcement officer; assault in special maritime and territorial jurisdiction; obstruct, impede or interfere with law enforcement during civil disorder; disorderly and disrutive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; engaging in act of physical violence in a restricted building or grounds; violent entry or disorderly conduct; act of physical violence on grounds.

Law enforcement compared social media messages, pictures and photos and Woods driver's licence and passport to identify Woods' presence at the Capitol on Jan 6. His identity was confirmed by two witnesses. One witness was a customer of his business, Woods Heating and Air, and the other was in a "teaching position" at a college Woods attended. A video posted to Youtube shows Woods tripping and pushing over a Capitol Police officer after another person sprayed her with bear mace.

In a seperate video, Woods is shown picking up and tossing media equipment and tackling a cameraman, causing him to fall to the ground and drop his camera. Woods is the first person arrested in relation to Jan. Knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly or disruptive conduct in a restricted building; violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds.

The FBI stated that when Lesperance was interviewed he admitted that he and his pastor were at President Trump's speech and then at the Capitol, but he wouldn't divulge the pastor's name. The pastor was later identified as James V. Cusick Jr. Lesperance also told the FBI he took photos and video but deleted them for fear of negative repercussions. After obtaining access to his iCloud account, the FBI stated he was wearing the same clothing in those photos that he was seen wearing in surveillance video and police body camera videos.

Florida records indicate Lesperance is a registered Republican who voted by absentee in the November general election. Knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly or disruptive conduct in a restricted building and violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds. Cusick, Jr. Via a search warrant for Apple, Inc. The documents state photos in the phone showed the Cusicks at the Capitol and that he was also seen on police body camera video. Entering and remaining in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a resticted building or grounds; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building; parading demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building.

Jennifer Bateau and her husband Jamie were known for their support of QAnon conspiracy theories, charging documents state. The Buteaus entered the Capitol around p. The couple left the Capitol around p. A witness told the FBI that Buteau changed her Facebook demographics after the riot to appear part of the Democratic party. Obstruction of law enforcement during civil disorder; assaulting, resisting or impeding certain officers or employees; entering and remaining in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; engaging in physical violence in restricted building or on restricted grounds; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building; engaging in physical violence on Capitol grounds.

Buteau was listed among the FBI's wanted photos as , the agency stated in charging documents. Buteau and his wife, Jamie, who was also arrested, have supported QAnon conspiracy theories, according to court records. From around to p. Obstructing an official proceeding and aiding and abetting; destruction of government property; entering and remaining in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; engaging in physical violence in the ground or Capitol building; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building.

Peterson traveled to Washington, D. Peterson was also caught on video inside the Capitol. In a Jan. Peterson posted a message to Facebook on Jan. Peterson also posted a message on his Facebook page before the incident stating that "Democratic lawmakers who opposed Trump were traitors and that the penalty for treason was death. Assaulting, resisting or impeding certain officers or employees of the United States in performance of official duties; obstruction of law enforcement during civil disorder; knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct on Capitol grounds; violent entry and disorderly conduct on Capitol grounds; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building.

In the doorway of the Capitol, officers tried to push Bingham outside which led to a physical altercation between Bingham and five officers. Push me again! Bingham was identified in several pictures retrieved from body camera footage and social media by three former Army colleagues. Entering and remaining in a restricted building; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building; violent entry and disorderly conduct; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol Building. John Getsinger and Stacie Ann Hargis-Getsinger traveled from their home in Hanahan, South Carolina, to attend the president's speech, according to court documents. The Getsingers and others coordinated rides to Washington, D. Getsinger was seen on the Capitol's security camera footage and a Facebook live video entering the Capitol and remaining inside for an extended period.

Law enforcement obtained cellular information from Google that Getsinger used his phone while inside the Capitol. Security camera footage also shows Getsinger on his phone while in the Capitol. Getsinger also expressed in text messages that Hargis-Getsinger was worried that they would be arrested for their actions. Entering and remaining in a restricted building; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building; violent entry and disorderly conduct; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building. Hargis-Getsinger traveled to Washington D. An anonymous caller said there is video of the couple yelling "This is War! Through tips and screenshots shared with law enforcement, two former co-workers confirmed Scirica's identity.

A tipster provided recordings of Scirica's Snapchat story from Jan. S Capitol. Entering and remaining in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building ; parading, demonstrating or picketing in a Capitol building. McDonald traveled to Washington D. She told officers in an interview that they marched together to the Capitol, and when they arrived "there were uniformed police officers near the doors telling them to come inside and showing them where to go. In one photo, she held up a sign that said: "If the dead can vote, just wait and see what the living can do.

Kidd traveled to D. Through a search warrant, the FBI obtained information from Kidd's Facebook account, officers found a message that said he removed the photos he had posted because "the FBI are trying to identify anyone and press charges. Knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; disorderly conduct in a Capitol building; parading, demonstrating, or picketing in a capitol building.

Prado is seen on video walking through several rooms in the Capitol over about five minutes on Jan. A person whose identity was redacted in the documents posted photos on Instagram that were seen by witnesses, including one who tipped the FBI to Prado's identity on Jan. The FBI stated Prado took at least two photographs that were posted on Instagram by the person whose identity was redacted. Cell phone data suggests that person wasn't in the Capitol, the documents show, but arrived later in the afternoon. Conspiracy; obstructing an official proceeding; unlawful entry on restricted building or grounds; tampering with documents or proceedings. Kinnison is among several who participated in Alan Hostetter's Telegram chat between Nov. The four who traveled to D.

Kinnison sent a message saying "got the bandolier" with a selfie of him wearing a bandolier of shotgun ammunition. Before they left California on Jan. Mele is one of a group of six California men indicted together and charged with conspiracy, for their participation in chats that started as early as Nov. He's one of four that posed for a photo before they started the drive to D. The indictment stated each of the four made a hand signal showing affiliation with a Three Percenter group. On the Capitol steps next to the upper west terrace, the indictment stated, Mele took a selfie video and stated "We stormed the Capitol. Assaulting, resisting or impeding certain officers; knowingly entering or remaining in any restricted building or grounds without lawful authority; disorderly and disruptive conduct in a restricted building or grounds; obstruction of law enforcement during a civil disorder; acts of physical violence in any of the Capitol buildings or grounds.

The FBI and the SeditionHunters group passed around photos of an unknown subject who was caught on body-cam video knocking a Capitol police officer to the ground, kicking them and taking riot shields from officers. According to the criminal complaint against Mock, tips came in that the person in the photos was Mock, which led the FBI to his girlfriend's Facebook page where she had posted about participating in the riot, being tear gassed, pepper sprayed and "mustard gassed.

Additional tips came in about Mock including one person who said, "He is home bragging about beating up cops and destroying property in the capital. Hostetter, a former chief of the La Habra police department, founded the far-right group American Phoenix Project to protest pandemic-related restrictions and push unfounded allegations about the presidential election. In court documents, the FBI alleges that for weeks he called for violence against those who supported the election results.

The charging documents indicate the group coordinated its plans for the Capitol, discussing taking hatchets and other weapons. Hostetter stood atop the upper west terrace and declared "the people have taken back their house. Conspiracy; obstructing an official proceeding; unlawful entry on restricted building or grounds; obstructing law enforcement during a civil disorder; unlawful posession of a dangerous weapon on Capitol grounds. Taylor is one of a group of six California men who authorities say conspired together for weeks before the riot. On the night before he posted a photo showing two hatchets, a walkie-talkie radio, a stun baton and a knife, with the caption "Now getting ready for tomorrow.

Warner is one of a group of six California men who authorities say conspired together for weeks before the riot. In late December he initiated text conversations with other members of the alleged conspiracy to discuss renting an SUV for a cross-country road trip to Washington D. He also joined in a Telegram chat planning the trip. The group's "about" section said they were going to serve as "comms" for people going to the Capitol and that they were "ready and willing to fight.

Photos were shared that identified Warner as a member of the Three Percenters. Martinez is one of a group of six California men who authorities say conspired together for weeks before the riot. Production of the silent film The Lost Colony and road development further damaged the site. In the s, J. Harrington advocated for the restoration and preservation of the earthwork. In , the earthwork was reconstructed in an effort to restore its original size and shape. Archaeological research on Roanoke Island only began when Talcott Williams discovered a Native American burial site in He returned in to excavate the fort, but found nothing of significance.

Phelps and his team discovered a ring in , which initially appeared to be a gold signet ring bearing the heraldry of a Kendall family in the 16th century. X-ray analysis in proved the ring was brass, not gold, and experts could not confirm the alleged connection to Kendall heraldry. The low value and relative anonymity of the ring make it more difficult to conclusively associate with any particular person from the Roanoke voyages, which in turn increases the likelihood that it could have been brought to the New World at a later time. A significant challenge for archaeologists seeking information about the colonists is that many common artifacts could plausibly originate from the colony, or from Native Americans who traded with other European settlements in the same era.

Andrew Lawler suggests that an example of a conclusive find would be female remains since the colony was exclusively male buried according to Christian tradition supine, in an east—west orientation which can be dated to before by which point Europeans would have spread throughout the region. One possible explanation for the extreme deficiency in archaeological evidence is shoreline erosion. The northern shore of Roanoke Island, where the Lane and White colonies were located, lost feet m between and Extrapolating from this trend back to the s, it is likely portions of the settlements are now underwater, along with any artifacts or signs of life. At their request, the British Museum examined the original map with a light table.

One of the patches, at the confluence of the Roanoke and Chowan rivers, was found to cover a symbol representing a fort. As the symbol is not to scale, it covers an area on the map representing thousands of acres in Bertie County, North Carolina. However, the location is presumed to be in or near the 16th century Weapemeoc village of Mettaquem. In , when a team prepared to excavate where the symbol indicated, archaeologist Nicholas Luccketti suggested they name the location "Site X", as in " X marks the spot. In an October statement, the First Colony Foundation reported finding fragments of Tudor pottery and weapons at Site X, and concluded that these indicate a small group of colonists residing peacefully in the area.

In , a team led by climatologist David W. Stahle of the University of Arkansas and archaeologist Dennis B. Blanton of the College of William and Mary concluded that an extreme drought occurred in Tidewater between and Their study measured growth rings from a network of bald cypress trees, producing data ranging from to Specifically, was measured as the worst growing season in the entire year period. The findings were considered consistent with the concerns the Croatan expressed about their food supply. Since , computer scientist Roberta Estes has founded several organisations for DNA analysis and genealogical research.

Her interest in the disappearance of the colony motivated various projects to establish a genetic link between the colonists and potential Native American descendants. Examining autosomal DNA for this purpose is unreliable, as so little of the colonists' genetic material would remain after five or six generations. However, testing of Y chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA is more reliable over large spans of time. The main challenge of this work is to obtain a genetic point of comparison, either from the remains of a Lost Colonist or one of their descendants. While it is conceivable to sequence DNA from year-old bones, there are as of yet no bones from the Lost Colony to work with.

As of , the project has yet to identify any living descendants either. Conjecture about the Lost Colonists typically begins with the known facts about the case. When White returned to the colony in , there was no sign of battle or withdrawal under duress, although the site was fortified. There were no human remains or graves reported in the area, suggesting that everyone was alive when they left. David Beers Quinn concluded that the colonists sought to relocate to their original destination — Chesapeake Bay — using the pinnace and other small boats to transport themselves and their belongings.

From there, these abductees would be able to communicate with Thomas Harriot, and might reveal that Europeans were living in the region. Although Strachey accused Wahunsenacawh of slaughtering the colonists and Chesepians in separate passages, Quinn decided that these events occurred in a single attack on an integrated community, in April He supposed that Wahunsenacawh could have been seeking revenge for the speculative kidnappings by Mace. People have considered the possibility that the missing colonists could have assimilated into nearby Native American tribes since at least Therefore, it is reasonable to postulate that, if the colonists were assimilated, they or their descendants would not seek reintegration with subsequent English settlers.

Most historians today believe this to be the most likely scenario for the surviving colonists' fate. It is widely accepted that the Croatan were ancestors of the 18th century Hatteras, although evidence of this is circumstantial. Some 17th century maps use the word "Croatoan" to describe locations on the mainland, across Pamlico Sound from Roanoke and Hatteras.

By , these areas were associated with the Machapunga. Bullard in More famously, in the s, state legislator Hamilton McMillan proposed that the Native American community in Robeson County then considered free people of color retained surnames and linguistic characteristics from the colonists. The tribe petitioned to be renamed in , eventually settling on the name Lumbee in Other tribes purportedly linked to the Roanoke colonists include the Catawba and the Coree. Ashe was convinced that the colonists had relocated westward to the banks of the Chowan River in Bertie County, and Conway Whittle Sams claimed that after being attacked by Wanchese and Wahunsenacawh, they scattered to multiple locations: The Chowan River, and south to the Pamlico and Neuse Rivers.

Reports of encounters with pale-skinned, blond-haired people among various Native American tribes occur as early as Although this is frequently attributed to assimilated Lost Colonists, it may be more easily explained by dramatically higher rates of albinism in Native Americans than in people of European descent. It was made up. The mystery is over. The colonists could have decided to rescue themselves by sailing for England in the pinnace, left behind by the expedition. If such an effort was made, the ship could have been lost with all hands at sea, accounting for the absence of both the ship and any trace of the colonists.

Little is known about the pinnace, but ships of its size were capable of making the trip, although they typically did so alongside other vessels. The colonists may have feared that a standard route across the Atlantic Ocean, with a stop in the Caribbean, would risk a Spanish attack. Nevertheless, it was feasible for the colonists to attempt a direct course to England. In , French settlers at the failed Charlesfort colony built a crude boat and successfully albeit desperately returned to Europe.

Alternatively, the Roanoke colonists could have sailed north along the coast, in the hopes of making contact with English fishing fleets in the Gulf of Maine. The pinnace would not have been large enough to carry all of the colonists. Additionally, the provisions needed for a transatlantic voyage would further restrict the number of passengers. The colonists may have possessed the resources to construct another seaworthy vessel, using local lumber and spare parts from the pinnace. Considering the ships were built by survivors of the Sea Venture shipwreck, it is at least possible that the Lost Colonists could produce a second ship that, with the pinnace, could transport most of their party.

Raleigh expressed sympathy for the separatists, while Walsingham considered them a threat to be eliminated. According to Miller, the colonists split up, with a small group relocating to Croatoan while the main body sought shelter with the Chowanoke. The colonists, however, would have quickly spread European diseases among their hosts, decimating the Chowanoke and thereby destabilising the balance of power in the region.

The area has had reports of small coffins, some with Christian markings, encouraging speculation of a link to the Lost Colony. All records suggesting the colony's intended destination was Chesapeake Bay, and that England had lost contact with the colony, were supposedly falsified to conceal the operation from Spanish operatives and other potential competitors. After that point, McMullan argued, the colonists would have begun to assimilate with the Croatan at Beechland. This hypothesis largely depends upon oral traditions and unsubstantiated reports about Beechland, as well as a map that depicts a sassafras tree near the Alligator River. A significant problem with the hypothesis, is that Raleigh supposedly planned a sassafras farm in , to capitalize on a dramatic increase in crop prices, so that he could quickly compensate for the great expense of the failed colony.

Green noticed that Spanish records from the period contained abundant references to Raleigh and his settlements, while collecting material for a stage play. Given the Spanish sack of Fort Caroline in , the colonists likely recognized the threat they represented. The CORA tree had already been the subject of local legends, most notably a story about a witch named "Cora" that was popularized in a book by C.

A study to determine the age of the CORA tree was inconclusive. Damage to the tree, caused by lightning and decay, has made it impossible to obtain a valid core sample for tree-ring dating. Even if the tree dates back to the 16th century, establishing the age of the inscription would be another matter. From —, a series of inscribed stones were discovered that were claimed to have been written by Eleanor Dare , mother of Virginia Dare.

They told of the travelings of the colonists and their ultimate deaths. Most historians believe that they are a fraud, but there are some today who still believe at least one of the stones to be genuine. Raleigh was publicly criticized for his apparent indifference to the fate of the colony, most notably by Sir Francis Bacon. United States historians largely overlooked or minimized the importance of the Roanoke settlements until , when George Bancroft lionized the colonists in A History of the United States. As Andrew Lawler puts it, "The country was hungry for an origin story more enchanting than the spoiled fops of Jamestown or the straitlaced Puritans of Plymouth Roanoke, with its knights and villains and its brave but outnumbered few facing an alien culture, provided all the elements for a national myth.

The popularity of the Lost Colony and Virginia Dare in the 19th and early 20th centuries coincided with American controversies about rising numbers of Catholic and non-British immigrants, as well as the treatment of African Americans and Native Americans. President Franklin D. Roosevelt attended the play on August 18, — Virginia Dare's th birthday. Croatoan, coincidentally was the murderer of the Colorado kid in Haven and Croatoan also appears in the television series Supernatural.

In the comic fiction book Bullets , an organisation of powerful European families known as The Trust massacred the Roanoke Colony as a warning to the kings of Europe, as they wished to claim the riches of the New World for themselves. The word "Croatoa" is used to "reactivate" agents of The Minutemen, an organisation which polices The Trust, who have been placed into hiding with their memories of The Minutemen suppressed. The American Horror Story episode " Birth " relates a fictional legend in which the Lost Colonists mysteriously died, and their ghosts haunted the local Native Americans until a tribal elder banished them with the word "Croatoan". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Croatoa. Not to be confused with the inland modern city of Roanoke, Virginia.

For other uses, see Lost Colony disambiguation. See also: List of colonists at Roanoke. Further information: Watts' West Indies and Virginia expedition. Main article: Dare Stones. See List of colonists at Roanoke. New York: Doubleday. ISBN Set Fair for Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, — Retrieved October 2, Walter Ralegh now Knight, for the discouering and planting of new lands and Countries, to continue the space of 6. In Hakluyt, Richard ; Goldsmid, Edmund eds. Part II. Edinburgh: E. Goldsmid published Retrieved September 8, Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books. Farnham: Ashgate published The European Discovery of America.

Volume 1: The Northern Voyages, A. New York: Oxford University Press. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia, of the commodities and of the nature and manners of the naturall inhabitants. Which Remained Vnder the gouernement of twelue monethes, at the speciall charge and direction of the Honourable Sir Walter Raleigh Knight lord Warden of the stanneries Who therein hath beene fauoured and authorized by her Maiestie and her letters patents.

Frankfurt: Johannes Wechel. Retrieved September 22, Retrieved September 20, Richard Grenville and the Lost Colony of Roanoke. Early American Literature. University of North Carolina Press. JSTOR S2CID Retrieved October 4, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved October 8, In Chandler, J. Volume I: History of the States. Retrieved September 25, Wherein was transported the second Colonie. Boyd April The North Carolina Historical Review. North Carolina Office of Archives and History. In Kingsbury, Susan Myra ed. The Records of the Virginia Company of London.

Retrieved September 4, Major, Richard Henry ed. The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia: Expressing the cosmographie and commodities of the country, togither with the manners and customes of the people. London: Hakluyt Society published English Literary Renaissance. The University of Chicago Press. PMID The Historical Journal.

Cambridge University Press. In Purchas, Samuel ed. Hakluytus posthumus, or, Purchas his Pilgrimes: contayning a history of the world in sea voyages and lande travells by Englishmen and others. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons published Retrieved August 31, Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. January London: s. Retrieved September 3, National Park Service. August 10, Retrieved September 11, February 10, Once the chakras key points or intersections are open, the chi , or energy, supposedly can then flow through the body bringing all things into harmony.

While some limited physical effects mostly anesthetic can be attributed to this practice, these effects have scientific, physiological explanations totally unrelated to the mystical explanation, which derives from Taoism. See Holistic Health. Profile available. Adams, Dennis, Mt. See Stelle Group. Advanced Systems, Inc. Adventism: Widespread trans-denominational movement inspired by William Miller's prediction that Jesus' "advent" return would take place in Even after the Great Disappointment the date's failure , many people in the movement continued to believe.

Some suggested revised chronologies and new dates, eventually forming groups such as the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Others, notably Hiram Edson and Ellen G. White, suggested that the date was accurate but that a heavenly thus invisible event had taken place. Their teachings became the basis of Seventh-day Adventism , which eventually spawned its own offshoots, including Armstrongism and the Branch Davidians. Educators have criticized the Foundation after public school teachers in New York introduced the philosophy into high school English, biology, and art courses.

Affective Education: Also called value-free, or non-directive, education. Influenced by the philosophy of Carl Rogers, affective education programs attempt to facilitate the emotional development of children in order to enhance the learning process, particularly focusing on self-esteem. This contrasts with traditional educational paradigms that focus on cognitive, or intellectual, practices such as reading, writing, and arithmetic. Affective education has become particularly influential in drug awareness programs for youth. Some agnostics make the claim on a personal level, while allowing that such knowledge may exist but has never been known by themselves. Others assert that such knowledge cannot be had by anyone. Agnostics avoid the charge of dogmatic atheism by acknowledging the theoretical possibility of God's existence.

Yet virtually all live as if the non-existence of God was an established fact, and are thus practical atheists. Agon Buddhism: Sect of Buddhism. Uses the Agon Sutras as scriptures. AION: Magic , runes , goddess worship. Akashic Records: Term used in theosophy designating an alleged library that exists on the astral plane containing all the thoughts, actions, and events of mankind. Mystics, through altered states of consciousness , tune into this library for information.

Alamo Christian Foundation: Tony Alamo, leader of this group, has been imprisoned by authorities for alleged illegal activities. Teaches traditional Christianity is dead. Former followers have reported deplorable living conditions, mind control , and slave labor. Today, it caries the meaning of a mystical transformation in New Age consciousness through various mystical techniques. Emphasizes combining syncretistic spirituality and psychology.

Bronner's Magic Soap, which claims to clean both body and soul. The soap is widely available in health-food stores. Teaches like Process Theology that God is continually recreating Himself. This unification will come about through following 13 precepts and 20 directives revealed to Bronner by God. Allah: Arabic, Muslim name for God; see Islam. Altered States of Consciousness: Trances entered through hypnosis , meditation , drugs including hallucinogenics , visualization , etc. State of being in which one allows the subconscious to take control and guide. May heighten one's vulnerability to suggestion or susceptibility to deception.

Alternative Medicine: See Holistic Health. See Armstrongism. American Atheists, Inc. O'Hair and two children disappeared in with a sizeable portion of the organization's assets. It is now believed they were murdered. Publishes American Atheist magazine. American Leadership College, Inc. See Apocalypse. Publishes the Phoenix Journal. Publishes the Anchor of Golden Light newsletter. A UFO group whose leader, a.

Dwight York claims to be form the 19th galaxy, called Illyuwn. A FBI report calls the group a "front for a wide range of criminal activity, including arson, welfare fraud and extortion. Ancient Wisdom Connection, N. Angels: Supernatural, non-human beings created by God. Angels worship God and serve as His messengers. The angels who followed Satan and rebelled against God are called demons. Anglo-Israelism: See British Israelism. Animal Magnetism: See Mesmerism. Animism: The idea that all things in the universe are inherently invested with a life force, soul, or mind. This belief is an important component of many primitive religions, the occult , and spiritism. Annihilationism: Taught by most Adventist groups, including the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society , this doctrine denies the conscious, eternal punishment of the lost.

Instead, humans who do not receive eternal life will be destroyed and cease to exist. Anointed Class: See Little Flock. Anthropomancy: A form of divination based on psychic readings of the entrails of a human who has been ritualistically sacrificed. Apocalypse: Also called Armageddon. From the Greek word apokalypsis, meaning "revelation, disclosure, or unveiling," the term apocalypse refers in the Bible to the summation of human history through God's direct judgment upon the world.

Central in biblical apocalyptic literature is the Revelation to John sometimes called The Apocalypse. A common feature of many pseudo-Christian groups is their attempts to predict the date of the apocalypse. Apostasy: From the Greek word apostasis, meaning "rebellion," and the Latin word apostasia, meaning "abandonment," the term apostasy refers to a renunciation of the Christian faith. The Watchtower Bible and Tract Society applies the label apostate to former Jehovah's Witnesses, who are then shunned by all Witnesses in good standing. Apostle: From the Greek word apostolos, meaning "messenger," the term apostle refers to those leaders of the early Christian church who were chosen by Jesus.

The criteria for being an apostle was 1 the individual was personally chosen by Christ; and 2 the individual must have personally seen Christ. Members of the top two quorums of leadership in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claim the title today. Apostolic Churches: A branch of Pentecostalism including several denominations as well as independent churches with the name "Apostolic"; many but not all Apostolic churches adhere to Oneness Pentecostalism.

Apostolic Overcoming Holiness of God, Inc. Salvation depends upon baptism, tarrying to receive the Holy Spirit, and holiness. Publishes The People's Mouthpiece magazine. Applewhite, Marshall: See Heaven's Gate. Applied Kinesiology: New Age diagnostic technique sometimes called "muscle testing. Aquarian Academy, Robert E. Man's purpose is to reach the transcendental plane, release from the wheel of fate, astral projection , meditation , cosmic truths. Similar to Unitarian-Universalist. Publishes the Fiery Synthesis magazine. Dowling, a New Age , apocryphal story supposedly based on the Akashic Records. Publishes the Panegyria newsletter. Based on the teachings of Alice Bailey see Arcane School. Publishes the Thoughtline newsletter.

Similar to Theosophy. Arefu: Company created and owned by Japanese doomsday-cult Aum Shinri Kyo for real estate brokering, financing and seminars. On January 18, , the cult announced it was also changing its own name to Arefu Aleph , in English. See Church of God, International. Armstrong, Herbert W. Armstrongism: The doctrines and religious movement originating with Herbert W. Armstrong rejected such essential doctrines of evangelical Christianity as the Trinity , the full deity of Jesus Christ , and the personality of the Holy Spirit.

Armstrong taught British Israelism and believed that worthy humans could eventually "become God as God is God. Under the leadership of Armstrong's successors, Joseph W. Scores of splinter groups, such as the Global Church of God and the United Church of God , continue to teach various forms of Armstrongism. Arn Draiocht Fein, P. Publishes News from the Mother Grove newsletter. Aromatherapy: Holistic health practice of seeking to heal certain diseases or illnesses by inhaling scented steam or fragrances. See Aromatherapy. Publishes The Runestone newsletter. Ascended Master Teaching Foundation, Mt.

Occult , New Age belief in alleged teachers or masters who live on an astral plane as non-physical entities beyond time and space. They can supposedly communicate spiritual truths to humans through channeling or other occult techniques. Membership includes Jesus , Buddha , St. See Sacred Name movement. Publishes The Faith. Associates for Scriptural Knowledge, Ernest L. Teaches universalism , i. Martin was fired by the Foundation for Biblical Research an Armstrongism splinter group in Alhambra, CA in for espousing these doctrines.

Riverside, CA: New Age , reincarnation and astrology. Association for Research and Enlightenment A. Publishes Voice of Astara. Usually a "cord" is said to connect the soul and body at all times. Also called astral travel. Astrology: An ancient fatalistic system of divination using the position of the planets, moon and sun in the twelve Zodiac positions at the moment of one's birth to gain occult or hidden knowledge of the future. Astrology and Psychic News, N. Hollywood, CA: New Age periodical. Atheism: The assertion, to be taken on faith, that there is no God. Some atheists, such as Madalyn Murray-O'Hair, have fought to prevent any recognition of God in public life. See American Atheists, Inc.

Purported to have been a highly advanced civilization. New Agers often claim to have recovered lost mystical wisdom and knowledge from Atlantis, sometimes through channeling. Atman: A term used in Hinduism referring to the eternal or real self and sometimes refering to the principle of life in all things. At-one-ment: Term used by several Mind Science or New Thought religions such as Christian Science referring to the supposed metaphysical unity or "oneness" of human beings and God as demonstrated by Christ. Contrast the Christian term "atonement," which refers to Christ's death on the cross as the means by which he reconciled sinful human beings to God.

Police raiding cult compounds discovered stockpiles of nerve gas and the basic ingredients of biological warfare. Sect leaders have been charged with abduction and "murder preparation. The sect has followers in other countries including the U. On January 18, , the cult announced it was changing its name to Arefu Aleph , in English. Aura: A subtle light or energy field said to surround people or objects. Mystics explain that from the color of the aura, a person's emotional and intellectual moods can be determined.

Author Services, Inc. Automatic Writing: Inspired from the spirit world, the writer has no conscious muscular control of his hands or arms. Found in many occult and New Age groups. Avatar: Hindu concept of an earthly manifestation of one of the gods in human or animal form, e. Avatar, Flagstaff, AZ: New Age seminars similar to est and Lifespring , enables participant to have conscious shift of beliefs. Awareness Research Foundation, Inc.

Teaches the balancing of vibrational centers for health through diet, exercise, herbs, and purification procedures. Bailey, Alice: Founder of the Arcane School. Often used as a symbol of Satan , especially in Satanism , and depicted as a Goat's Head symbol, an upside down five-pointed star cf. If these dead persons then accept the LDS gospel while in Spirit Prison, they can potentially attain full salvation or godhood exaltation. This ceremony is performed only in an LDS Temple. See Baptismal Regeneration. Baptismal Regeneration: The belief that regeneration i.

All Christians should be baptized Matthew The teaching that baptism is a prerequisite for salvation, however, is considered by many evangelicals to be a heretical compromise of the biblical gospel of salvation by grace alone Ephesians The extreme version of baptismal regeneration, which denies the salvation even of baptized Christians outside some particular church group, is clearly heretical. The Beatles: A highly influential rock-and-roll group from the s. The Beatles are widely credited with increasing the popularity of Eastern religions in the United States. Publishes Believer's News. Bell, Art: Popular late-night radio talk show host. While his Coast to Coast weeknight broadcast and Dreamland weekend broadcast focus on a wide array of New Age and occult issues, as well as many conspiracy theories, one of the most common subjects discussed by guests on the program is UFO s.

Beltane: Occult , Celtic holiday, also called Walpurgisnacht, celebrated on the night of April Celts are alleged to have conducted fertility rituals and human sacrifice. Some people involved in the occult and UFO studies believe the Triangle is a supernaturally dangerous area, with many ships and airplanes disappearing in the Triangle in the 20th century. Bernard, David: A well-known Oneness Pentecostal writer and speaker.

Krishnamurti later renounced that role. Publishes The Prophetic Watchman newsletter. Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh: Though this Indian guru is deceased, many followers still practice his unique form of Hindu philosophy and sexual yoga system to gain enlightenment. Bhakti Yoga: Type of yoga or spiritual exercise involving devotion to a guru. Bible: Considered scripture by Christianity. Bible Believers, Inc. Bible Code, Michael Drosnin: Bestselling book teaches that prophecies are hidden in a complex network of letters and words within the Old Testament. Drosnin claims that he attempted to warn Israeli leader Yitzak Rabin of his impending assassination based on a prediction in the biblical code.

The theory is a form of numerology and has some associations with the Jewish occultism of the Kabbalah. Bible Students: Various semiautonomous groups that broke away from the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society after Joseph Rutherford took control of the organization. Groups across the country go under various names e. Bible Way Publications, Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Bible Students group. Bind: See Spell. Bioenergy: New Age practice of healing. Balances the life-energy by opening blocked meridians see acupuncture. Biofeedback : The use of EEG electroencephalographic feeback instruments to monitor brain waves and skin resistance with the goal of modification of brain waves.

Participants can learn to control heart rates or generate brain wave activity alpha, beta, and delta at will to induce altered states of consciousness. Bio-Magnetics: New Age , the realigning of magnetic fields allegedly surrounding the body. Black candles are used and Catholic prayers recited backwards. Allegedly, the communion is occasionally performed using human blood and flesh. Black Muslim: Generic term referring to Nation of Islam and related groups. Blessed Be: A common greeting used among Wiccans to invoke or wish happiness and well-being. Blood Atonement Doctrine: The belief, taught by the second Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, that for certain sins the blood of Christ will not atone and for which the sinner's own blood must be shed to receive forgiveness Journal of Discourses, Vol.

No longer taught by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the belief is often preached and sometimes practiced by members of Mormon Fundamentalist splinter groups. To this day, Utah allows condemned murders to face execution by firing squad rather than methods that do not shed the criminal's blood, such as lethal injection or the electric chair. Publishes the Solar Space-Letter. Book of Changes: See I Ching. Born Again: Biblical term used to describe regeneration John Some New Age followers teach that the term was Christ's reference to reincarnation or rebirthing. In context, Jesus was speaking of a spiritual event effected by God through the Holy Spirit see verses to restore a sinful, fallen human to right relationship with Him see verses See Gospel.

Brahma: The creator and first member of the triad of demigods in Hinduism , including Shiva and Vishnu. Brainwashing: Forced indoctrination using various techniques to cause a subject to abandon basic political, social, or religious ideas or beliefs and replace those ideals with a contrasting belief system. A translation of a Chinese word xinao, "brainwashing" became a popular term to describe the phenomena of radical change in behavior and core beliefs that took place in some prisoners of war held in Chinese camps in the mid-twentieth century. In a more general sense, the word is sometimes used to describe any form of persuasion perceived to be unethical that results in a radical and negative change in personality.

See Lifton, Robert , Mind Control. David Koresh A. Vernon Howell was leader from to He and many of his most devout followers were killed when their headquarters near Waco, TX, was destroyed by fire in during a government raid. Taught knowledge of the Seven Seals of the Book of Revelation brought salvation. Many followers still believe Koresh's messianic claims and expect him to be resurrected soon. Branham, William, : Oneness Pentecostal preacher who claimed he received healing and prophetic powers from an angel. Denied the Trinity , taught the serpent seed doctrine, and rejected other Pentecostal and traditional Christian churches. The group requires renouncing both family and worldly possessions in order to earn salvation see Salvation by works.

Members travel nomadically, earning their nickname because of their practice of eating discarded food. Family members note that Roberts hides relatives, moving the individuals to avoid familial contact. Note: This group is not affiliated with the Church of the Brethren, an Anabaptist denomination. Brinkley, Dannion: As chronicled in his bestseller Saved by the Light, Brinkley allegedly underwent a near-death experience after being struck by lightning. He teaches people to perform "life reviews" to enhance their perception of life and death and to find their life missions. The monarchs of England sit on the throne of David. See Christian Identity Movement , Serpent seed doctrine.

Also known as Center of Light and Life. Brotherhood of the White Temple, Inc. The Bruderhof Community: A communal society started in Germany in the s and based on the sixteenth-century Moravian Anabaptist sect of Jacob Hutter, which was part of the Radical Reformation. The group is also called the Society of Brothers and the Hutterian Brethren. The basic theology of the group is Protestant but, according to former members and other critics, the group exercises inappropriate control over the members and practices shunning and other forms of spiritual abuse. Buddha: Siddhartha Gautama Buddha "enlightened one" was born about BC in northeastern India and, according to legend, received spiritual enlightenment through meditation.

During his lifetime, his spiritual insights and teachings became a major alternative to Hinduism throughout India. Diverse versions of his teachings can be found worldwide today. See Buddhism. Buddhism: World religion based on the spiritual teachings of Siddhartha Gautama Buddha. There are a number of versions or sects of Buddhism generally teaching paths to Nirvana enlightenment or bliss though the four noble truths recognizing existence and source of suffering and the eightfold path correct understanding, behavior and meditation.

The name comes from the culmination of the festival, in which a wooden man with outstretched arms resembling a crucifix is burned by the crowd. Cabalah: See Kabbalah. Caelum Moor, Arlington, TX: Private park now closed containing menhirs large upright stones similar to those found at Stonehenge. Newspaper reports claim trespassers have used the site for pagan ceremonies. See Stonehenge. Very influential in the public school arena. He helped popularize Native American shamanism , the hallucinogenic peyote , and New Age occultism.

Publishes the Castle Rising newsletter. Catholicism: See Roman Catholicism. Celestine Prophecy, The: A best-selling New Age book by James Redfield that teaches enlightenment through the fictional "Nine Insights" contained in secret manuscripts written by Maya natives in the jungles of Peru. Celticism, Celts: The Celts were a group of related tribes whose territory extended throughout Europe early in the first millennium AD , but who are most commonly associated with the British Isles. The Celts worshipped local deities frequently associated with nature , often served by a priestly class of Druids. Human sacrifice was important to Druidic religion. Modern neo-pagans frequently claims to be Celtic, although the modern beliefs and practices bear little resemblance to ancient Celticism.

Celtic Christianity: Augustine of Canterbury evangelized England in the late 6th? His work was later taken by Patrick to Ireland, who is largely credited with establishing the Celtic church. Celtic Christianity was heavily influenced by the Roman Catholic Church, to which it was allied, although many individuals claim a greater reverence for nature in the Celtic tradition. Differences in practice within the Celtic church were gradually eradicated during the Middle Ages as the Roman papacy asserted its authority over Ireland.

Modern groups that claim to revive Celtic Christianity are frequently a mixture of Protestantism and Roman Catholicism , with few legitimate ties to the early Celtic church. Nonetheless, these groups should not be confused with neo-pagan groups that also claim to be Celtic. He and his work, which is frequently supportive of new religions, are often used by alternative religious groups to support their activities when pursuing governmental recognition. Publishes the Interconnections newsletter. Publishes The Light Journal. The Centers Network: See est. Occult spells , hexes, curses, voodoo , witchcraft see Wicca. Chakras: New Age , said to be centers for cosmic energy in the human body that are aligned to allow the Kundalini energy to proceed from the base of the spine to the top of the forehead.

Channeling: New Age term for the occult practice of Spiritualism also called trance channeling. Spirit beings, Ascended Masters , deceased humans, familiar spirits , or animal spirits allegedly communicate important messages by temporarily entering the body and controlling the voice of a host channel or medium. Most channelers give the same basic message, that man is a God. Chi: Invisible energy or force alleged to make up the universe and flow through all living things via meridians or chakras. See Taoism , Yin and Yang , Acupuncture.

Publishes the MU News. Chinmoy, Sri: Hindu philosophy , meditation. Chiromancy: See Palm Reading. Chiropractic Medicine: A holistic health practice whereby practitioners use a form of manipulative therapy to treat musculoskeletal problems. While many chiropractors are not engaging in alternative religious activities via their practice, critics claim that some chiropractors engage in chiropractic medicine in accordance with the Taoist principle of facilitating the flow of chi. Chopra, Deepak: Noted New Age and health author and lecturer.

See Ayurvedic Medicine. Christ: Based on the Greek christos meaning "anointed one," equivalent to the Hebrew "messiah. Christians believe this to be Jesus of Nazareth, who died to atone for human sin. Other religions believe in a succession of Christ figures through history, sometimes including Jesus, who were great teachers. New Age groups sometimes understand the term "Christ" as a reference to the deity found in all humanity the Cosmic Christ. Thus, Jesus was conscious of his deity or "the Christ within" and others can have this same " Christ-consciousness " by realizing that they, too, are divine. Other religious leaders have historically claimed to hold the office or ministry of Christ including Unification Church founder Rev.

Sun Myung Moon. Biblical warnings are given for "false Christs" Mark Christ-consciousness: New Age term expressing the belief that Christ is a divine potential in all human beings of which only some people are aware or conscious, rather than a unique title for Jesus. Lightening Amen, claims to be the incarnation of Jesus. Followers dress in robes, no shoes, practice vegetarianism. Also rejects the ideas of heaven and hell. It has several splinter groups. Christian Identity movement: The belief that the true identity of the ten lost tribes of Israel is the white, Anglo-Saxon race. The belief is similar to but distinct from the doctrine of British Israelism. A number of independent churches and organizations including some militant racist groups make up the general movement.

Most deny the Trinity. Some teach a form of the Serpent Seed doctrine, believing that Jews are descendants of Eve's alleged sexual relations with the serpent Genesis 3 and are thus not fully human. Many also hold that non-Whites are descended from the union of Cain and a woman from a supposed pre-Adamite race. Publishes The New Creation periodical. Eddy's teaching heavily indebted to Phineas P. Quimby , a mesmerist. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures functions as a virtual second canon of Scripture.

Views God as infinite Mind, "the animating divine Principle of all that is real and good. Seeking medical help is discouraged, frequently resulting in preventable deaths. Christ is "the divine manifestation of God" most fully seen in Jesus, who only seemed to die. The orthodox doctrine of the Trinity is rejected as polytheistic. Followers, called Christians, were initially viewed as a sect of Judaism. It quickly developed as a separate religion as Jewish Christians became outnumbered by non-Jewish converts and, through a strong missionary emphasis, Christianity became a diverse worldwide movement.

Except for cults , aberrant sects, and Liberal Christianity , those who claim to be Christians have historically believed the following: There is only one true God eternally revealed in three distinct Persons - the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit the Trinity. Human beings are sinners who without the grace of God received through faith in Christ are eternally lost. Jesus, who is God in the flesh, died on the cross and rose physically from the dead as the sole and sufficient payment for the sins of humanity.

Chrysalis : Swedenborg Foundation periodical. Chuang-tzu: Legendary founder of Taoism. Shepherding , mind control. Publishes the Green Egg periodical. Church of Bible Understanding C. Church of Christ: See Churches of Christ. Church of Freethought: A social organization for atheists that provides the opportunities for socializing, community service, and social support offered by theistic churches. Smith, Richardson, TX: Armstrongism splinter group. Denies Trinity , personality of the Holy Spirit, and the bodily resurrection.

Teaches annihilationism , salvation by law-keeping, Sabbatarianism , and that man can become a member of "the God family" Godhead. Publishes Newswatch Magazine and Newswatch radio and television programs. Publishes Notes For Bible Students newsletter. Main headquarters for the Church of God, Abrahamic Faith. Armstrong recently stepped down from his top leadership position amidst allegations of sexual misconduct and litigation. Publishes the Proclaim Liberty magazine.

Publishes Bible Advocate. Publishes The Herald of Truth newsletter. Publishes The Advocate of Truth newsletter. Publishes The Watchman. Smith claimed that the Father and Son appeared to him and called him to restore the true Church. God and his heavenly Wife begat billions of spirit children, the firstborn of whom was Jesus. Lucifer was the leader of God's rebellious spirit children. Those spirits who did not rebel become human beings in order to begin process potentially leading to exaltation to Godhood. Jesus, however, became a God while only a spirit. He organized our world and is Jehovah, the God of Israel.

He is a separate and subordinate God to Elohim, the Father. The latter is a divine energy, force, or spiritual essence that fills the universe and is used by all three members of the Godhead in the exercise and accomplishment of their will. The Church rejects the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity. It also redefines salvation by grace to refer simply to resurrection. Almost all humans will be resurrected into one of three kingdoms of glory, the least of which is far superior to anything known in this life.

Entry into the higher kingdoms, and one's rank there, depends not only upon the atonement of Christ, but also upon one's good works. Publishes Church News and Ensign magazine. Church of Jesus Power, E. Cooke, Sr. Atonement to be found in each person's own path. Publishes Metaphysical Messenger magazine. LaVey, author of the Satanic Bible , founded the church in and died in after which a struggle for leadership ensued between LaVey's daughters, Karla and Zeena, and his long-term live-in partner, Blanche Barton. Gilmore to be High Priest. Barton is now serving in a lesser role as Magistra Templi Rex. The church has claimed as many 10, members.

LaVey, a former lion tamer, organist, hypnotist, psychic, artist, and photographer.

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